The Kumeyaay of Southern California
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SIX HUNDRED GENERATIONS IN SAN DIEGO COUNTY
After hundreds of years of diligent archaeological research and hard artifactual evidence gleaned from many Southern California indigenous sites, it is widely agreed among scholars that the Kumeyaay (Iipai-Tipai-Diegueño) people have occupied this region for at least 12,000 years, 600 generations!
1542 FIRST CONTACT: First European explorer in California, Juan Cabrillo, sailed into what is known today as San Diego Bay and made first contact with the Kumeyaay people.
1769 FIRST SPANISH MISSIONARY: Father Junípero Serra, established the first Franciscan mission in California near the ancient Kumeyaay village of Kosa'aay (Cosoy), known today as Old Town, San Diego.
1848 THE MEXICAN AMERICAN WAR: The Mexican-American War ended with signing of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo. This treaty, between the Mexican and American governments, established the current US-Mexico border and divided California from Mexico. Moreover, it cut the international border through the heart of the Kumeyaay ancestral homelands.
This North American border region is known today as Southern California (County of San Diego) and Baja California Norte (Mexico), and it is located in the extreme southwestern corner of the U.S.A.
Kumeyaay History, circa 1900: Two Diegueño (Kumeyaay) men with child wearing Kumeyaay basket hats in front of an ewaa-style thatched shelter pose for a photograph, circa late 1800s or early 1900s. Man standing holding a staff, a tump line slung over his head supporting a bundle of fibrous material or basket container. Baskets and agave cordage net bags hanging off of exterior walls.